EAA has provided specialist reports to many public and private sector organisations over the years dealing with many aspects of improved building energy performance and lower CO2 emissions. Listed below are examples of public sector-funded work and other work which is available in the public domain.
Review of Ultra-Low Energy Homes 1994-95
Commissioned by the Building Research Establishment. Carried out jointly with John Willoughby, Energy Consultant. Final report published in two volumes by BRECSU in 1996 as General Information Reports 38 and 39. GIR 38 contained short reviews of 40 UK projects and ten overseas ones. GIR 39 had fuller reviews of 12 UK projects.
The reports listed a modest number of UK buildings whose energy performance improved on the original target. This was a total gas and electricity consumption for all purposes of less than 100 kWh/m2y. Further buildings were listed whose performance came close to this figure but did not reach it.
The emphasis was on the actual, not the calculated, energy performance of advanced energy-efficient buildings. There was often a wide discrepancy between theory and practice. A key recommendation of the report was the need to investigate this ‘performance gap’ as soon as possible.
Negawatt Power: The Cost and Potential of Electrical Efficiency in Western Europe – 1995
ISBN 1-883774-04-7. Prepared for the Dutch Ministry of Housing by the International Project for Sustainable Energy Paths, California, USA. Main author Florentin Krause; co-authors David Olivier of Energy Advisory Associates, UK and Jon Koomey of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Univ. of California. Volume 2, Part 3 of a ten-volume report. Most volumes are downloadable free from here.
CEPHEUS – 1996-98
Cost-Effective Passive Houses as European Standard (CEPHEUS). THERMIE Project BU/0127/97. Involved in the UK section of this project; i.e., the early stages only, along with Leeds Metropolitan University, Marches Housing Association and RSLs in London and Yorkshire.
UK Window Energy Rating System – 1998-2002
Development of an energy rating system for UK windows which takes into account the window’s U-value and g-value; i.e., its transmission of incoming winter solar radiation which helps to meet the building’s space heating needs. EAA worked on the project with Leeds Metropolitan University and Fenestration Associates. It was fairly closely modelled on the window energy rating systems that were already operating in the USA and Canada.
Initially the work was supported in part by the Dept. of Environment, Transport and the Regions under its Partners in Technology Programme. Remaining funding came from the UK wood window industry. Later development was funded by the private sector.
Cutting Carbon Emissions While Making Money – 2000
A report on climate change mitigation strategies for the European Union. Sums up the ten-volume series ENERGY POLICY IN THE GREENHOUSE; see above. The results of the study of costs and potential indicate that significant carbon reductions are possible at negative net costs; i.e., the EU would make a profit by investing in this area. Work funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment. Authors Florentin Krause, Jonathan Koomey, and David Olivier.
2002 Building Regulations – 1999-2001
Background reports to assist Oscar Faber, subsequently Faber Maunsell / AECOM, and the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions with the revision of the Approved Documents for Parts L1 and L2 of the Building Regulations 2002, plus the public consultation. Included a survey of building practice in other developed countries and regions, ranging from Stockholm to Los Angeles, covering ‘normal’ and ‘best practice’ insulation levels and air leakage standards.
Low-Energy Wall Constructions – 2006-07
Report to the Building Research Establishment on wall construction options available for ‘low-carbon’ buildings. About 25 different wall construction systems were listed that are in widespread use in the UK or elsewhere in Europe or North America in energy-efficient, low- to medium-rise buildings. If we wish to narrow the so-called ‘performance gap’, many of these construction systems could provide very attractive alternatives to the cavity wall.
Carbonlite Energy Performance Standards – 2007-09
The Carbonlite Standards published by the AECB set advanced but achievable standards of thermal performance, going beyond Part L of the Building Regulations. More details of the new construction and retrofits which aimed to meet these standards can be seen at the Low-Energy Buildings Database.
Prepared jointly by EAA and Simmonds Mills Architects, the technical guidance explains to design teams how to meet high and very high thermal standards in practice. It covers masonry, concrete, concrete-frame and timber-frame construction.
Those wanting to meet either high or very high thermal standards should refer to the Silver Standard Design Guidance or Passivhaus and Gold Standard Design Guidance respectively. Both are downloadable free by AECB members. Non-members may wish to join the AECB.
Retrofit for a Future – 2009
Assistance to the Technology Strategy Board, Swindon on the design of this competition. Work was undertaken with other members of the AECB.
Tasks included setting the minimum energy and CO2 standards which retrofitted dwellings should have to meet. Guidance was issued on modelling UK dwellings correctly with the Passivhaus Planning Package, allowing for the significant differences in conventions between German and UK energy and heat loss calculations plus differences in domestic habits and energy use between the two countries. This was presented to interested parties in September 2009.
Ecostiler – 2010-12
Stands for Energy-efficient COmmunity STimulation by use and Integration of Local Energy Resources. ECOSTILER was EU-funded and assisted several projects in the UK, Netherlands and Denmark to demonstrate the more energy-efficient use of natural gas and later biomethane for space and water heating. This normally involves generating electricity and heating buildings with the waste heat from the CHP plant.
Detailed studies were made of heat load densities and linear heat loads in the lowest-density suburban areas of Birmingham and Oxford for Clean Heat Provision Ltd. This work addressed the lowest-density areas of housing and other buildings, given that the layout of high-density housing in UK cities has already been well studied.
It was found that heat networks in the outer suburbs of these two UK cities would need 50% less length of installed heat main per dwelling than the networks already installed in suburbs of Danish cities. The cost implications of this seem more favourable than UK analysts have so far appreciated.
The main findings of the work were presented to a conference at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London in 2012.
Carbonlite Retrofit Programme – 2011-14
Ongoing work in support of this initiative. The aim is to develop ways to finance cost-effective building retrofits and sidestep the difficulties which UK initiatives such as the Green Deal have experienced.
Renewable Energy Study – 2015-16
A study of scope for renewable heat in a medium-sized village without natural gas. Possibly utilising the techniques seen in similar settlements in countries such as Denmark; i.e., installing a heat network to use a mix of available heat sources.